A current-carrying wire in an electrical circuit, also called the grounded circuit wire, it serves as the return path for current, and is connected to ground at the service panel. In household electrical circuits the neutral wire is colored white or gray. Some circuits make use of the white or gray wire as a hot wire, when this is done it will be marked with black tape or paint to identify it as hot.
Thread the connector clockwise onto the twisted wires, being sure no bare copper is exposed at the bottom. Pull gently on the connector to be sure it’s secure. You can wrap electrical tape around the wires and cap for extra security or just push the splices into the back of the box and attach the cover plate.
Mark each stud for notching using one of the nail guards as a template. Use a handsaw to cut the top and bottom lines for the notch to the depth of the plate thickness.
Hold the fixture up to splice the wires. Usually the first wire splice will aid in supporting a small light, but have a helper assist with supporting a large, heavy fixture while making the connections. While still supporting the weight, attach the base to the mounting strap with the screws and tighten the base to the ceiling.
The uninterrupted path of electricity. A wire from one end to another has continuity, install a switch between the two end and turn it off to break the path and interrupt the continuity.
There are 3 basic types of wall switches you will encounter in most situations. A single-pole switch is the most common you will find and can be identified by two screw terminals, and in the case of new devices, a third one for ground.
Electric cable with spiral metal sheathing. Early armored cable, BX cable, carried two electric wires with no ground. The metal sheath served as the ground. Later versions carried an aluminum ground wire, wound in the spiral. Newer armored cable includes an insulated ground wire.
Split the sheathing on the cable leaving about 1/4in still covering the wires. Cut the sheathing to remove it and strip off about 3/4 inch of the plastic insulation from the end of each wire. Avoid nicking or scratching the copper wire while removing the insulation.